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Daular Usmaniyya

Wallafan June 9, 2020. 11:30pm. Na Abubakar A Gwanki. A Sashin Dauloli

Daular Usmaniyya a Sakkwato, babbar Daula ce mai zaman kanta a yammacin Afirka da aka kafa fiye da shekara 200, ana danganta Sarkin Daular da Sarkin Musulmin Najeriya.
http://zamaniweb.com/administrator/files/20/06/168/fadar_sokoto.pngfadar masarautar Sokoto

Asalin kafuwar daular Usmaniyya


Asalin kafuwar daular Usmaniyya ya fara ne tun daga kan lokacin da Sultan na farko a daular ya fara yin wa'azi na kiran jama'a zuwa ga addinin musulunci a garin Degel na masarautar Gobir. Shehu na yin kirane musamman ga sarakunan kan su kauracewa tsafi da shirka da zalunci. Hakan baiyima mahukunta dadi ba, musamman ma sarkin Gobir na lokacin maisuna Yunfa. Sarkin ya ganama Shehu azabobi kala-kala ya wahalar da shi da mabiyansa.
Da azabar da shehu kesha yaga ta isa, sai yayi gudun hijira da mabiyansa daga garin Degel na masarautar Gobir ya koma zuwa ga wani guri a yamma, da ake kira da Gudu.
A Gudu, Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kafa mazauni tare da mabiyan sa domin samun sauki. To amma duk da haka alamu sun nuna cewa basu tsira ba, domin Sarkin Gobir Yumfa yana shirin kawo musu harin yaki. Don haka ne bayan Shehu Usman Danfodio ya yi la’akari da sharudan yin Jihadi a addinin Musulunci, kuma yaga cewar duk an cika su, sai ya tara mabiyan sa ya kuma basu umarnin shiri domin kaddamar da Jihadi.
A shekarar 1804, Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kaddamar da Yakin Jihadi akan kasar Gobir da ma sauran Masarautun kasar Hausa. Zuwa shekarar 1807, Shehu Usman Danfodio tare da mabiyan sa wanda mafi yawancin su Fulani ne, sun gama mamaye kusan fadin arewacin Nigeria, da kuma wasu yankuna a kasar Niger da Cameroon.
Wannan nasara da Fulani suka samu na yin Jihadin Musulunci, shine ya samar da Daular Fulani ta Sokoto, da kuma kafuwar mulkin Fulani a daukacin Masarautun kasar Hausa.
Wannan yaki shi ake kira da Jihadin Danfodiyo ko Jihadin Fulani. Daganan wannan hamshakiyar daular ta kafu.

Daular Usmaniyya daular Musulunci ce


Dangantakar Daular Usmaniyya ko masarautar Sokoto da addinin Musulunci ta samo asali ne saboda Shehu Dan Fodiyo, a lokacin da aka yi masa mubaya'a bayan Musulmi sun yi hijira daga garin Degel zuwa Gudu a shekara ta 1804 a cikin watan Fabrairu saboda tsanancin mulkin Sarkin Gobir na wancan lokacin.
Don haka kuwa Musulunci ne ya kafa Daular Sokoto sanadiyar Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo Mujaddadi bayan an yi jihadi, amma masana tarihi sun ce tun kafin zamaninsa, an yi sarakuna na musulunci amma a kasashen Hausa.
Don haka Musulunci ne ya kafa daular ba sarauta ba.
Bayan da Musulmi suka yi hijira ne zuwa Degel , sai suka zauna suka tattauna suka ga ya dace su zabi shugaba ko Jagora.
To anan ne suka ga ya dace Shehu Usman Danfodiyo ya zama shugaba ko Amirul Muminin ko kamar yadda ake cewa da Fulatanci "Lamido Julbe".
Dafarko dai Dan Fodiyo yayi biris da amincewa da bukatar, sai da aka dauki lokaci sannan ya amince ya zama Sarkin Musulmi amma da sharadin cewa zai yi hukunci ne da Qur'ani da Hadisin Manzo (SAW).
A kan haka ne ya amince a yi masa mubaya'a amma da Al Qur'ani da Hadisi, kuma daga lokacin ne aka fara kiran Shehu Usman Danfodiyo Sarkin Musulmi.
Daga nan ne Sarautar Sarkin Musulmi ta samo asali, duk wanda aka nada to ya zama Khalifan Danfodiyo.
Yadda tsarin gudanar da mulki yake a masarautar Daular Usmaniyya
http://zamaniweb.com/administrator/files/20/06/168/usmaniyya.jpgtaswirar masarautar Daular Usmaniyya.
Yadda tsarin Sarautar Sakkwato yake kafin Danfodiyo
Kafin Shehu Usman Danfodio ya bambanta bayan zuwan sa, a baya Sokoto na karkashin rikon mulkin Gobir ne kuma a wancan lokacin ana mulki ne na Sarauta, wanda kuma ba bisa tsarin Shari'ar Musulunci ba, mulki ne na gado daga kaka da kakanni.
Mulki ne na gargajiya kafin zuwan Mujaddadi Shehu Usman Danfodiyo.
An samu sauyi lokacin da musulmi suka yi wa Danfodiyo Mubaya'a, tun kafin ma a fara jihadi inda aka jaddada musulunci a kasashen Hausa 10 irin su Zazzau da Kano da Bauchi da aka bai wa tuta, dukkaninsu kuma suka dawo karkashin daular Sakkwato.

Farkon nasara da kafa tuta


A yankin Gudu a jihar Sakkwato, a nan ne Shehu Usman Dandofio ya fara kafa tuta inda musulmi suka yi masa mubaya'a bayan ya yi hijira daga mulkin Gobir.
A lokacin ma an ji Danfodiyo na cewa "Gudu yau ba Gudu", wato an kai iyaka, za a tsaya ba wani gudu domin kare addinin Musulunci.
Masana tarihi sun ce, musulmi sun ci gaba da yin kaura zuwa garin Gudu saboda Danfodiyo, kuma a nan ne aka kaddamar da Jihadi.

Masarautun da Danfodiyo ya cinye da yaki


Masarautu da dama ne Shehu Usman Danfodiyo ya ci da yaki, tun daga Najeriya zuwa Nijar da Burkina Faso da Jamhuriyar Benin.
A Najeriya Daulolin da Danfodiyo ya ci da yaki sun kai 18.
Kuma ya fara ne tun daga yankin Sokoto, kamar Sarkin Kabbin Yabo Muhammadu Mauje da aka ba tuta har zuwa Zamfara da 'Yan doto da Katsina da Adamawa da Ilori da Nupe da Bauchi.
Akwai kuma Jama'are da Misau da Hadeja da Kazaure, duk wadannan ne wurare ne da Danfodiyo ya jaddada addinin musulunci, kuma aka samu sauyi aka kafa masarautu na addini.

Khalifanci


Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello, shi ne Khalifa na farko bayan rasuwar Shehu Usman Danfodiyo, wanda dansa ne da ya yi shugabanci bayan mahaifinsa, a tsawon shekaru 20, daga 1817 zuwa 1837.
Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello ya ci gaba da shugabanci irin tsari na mahaifinsa Shehu Usman Danfodiyo domin jaddada dorewar Daular Usmaniya.
A zamaninsa ne aka yi yakin Gobirawa da Zamfarawa da suka kawo wa Sakkwato hari, amma duka ya ci su da yaki domin kare Daular Usmaniya.

Rabuwar gidan sarautar sarkin musulmi na Sokoto


Gidan Sarautar Sarkin Musulmi a Sokoto ya kasu ne gida biyar, wato 'ya'yan Shehu Usman Danfodiyo.
Gidan Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello
Akwai gidan Sarkin Musulmi Abubakar Atiku Mai Katuru wanda Kabarinsa ke Katuru a cikin yankin Shinkafi cikin Jihar Zamfara.
Gidan Amadu Rufa'i wanda zuriyarsa ke Silame da Gidan Muhammadu Buhari wanda zuriyarsa ke rike da garin Tambuwal da Dogon Daji da Sifawa.
Sai Isa Autan Shehu, wanda shi ne na karshe daga cikin 'ya'yan Shehu Usman Danfodiyo maza guda 20, kuma zuriyarsa ce ke rike da garin Kware.
Dukkanin wadannan gidajen idan Sarautar Sarkin Musulmi ta fadi suna iya nema.

Gidan da ba'ayi sarauta ba


Sarautar Sarkin Musulmi ba ta taba fadawa ba a Gidan Amadu Rufa'i Dan Shehu, Sarkin Musulmi na bakwai. Kuma tun lokacin da Allah ya yi masa rasuwa a 1873, zuriyarsa ba su sake karbar Sarautar Sarkin Musulmi ba.
Haka ma gidan Isa Autan Shehu bai taba rike Sarautar Sarkin Musulmi ba. Amma 'ya'ya da jikokin gidan Bello da Atiku dukkaninsu sun yi Sarautar Sarkin Musulmi.

Sarkin da yafi dadewa


Marigayi Abubakar na III, Sarkin Musulmi na 17 ne ya fi dadewa a Daular Usmaniya, wanda ya shafe shekaru 50 yana shugabanci, daga 1938 zuwa 1988.
Abubakar na III jika ne ga Mu'azu Sarkin Musulmi na tara, daga Sarkin Musulmi na biyu Muhammadu Bello.
Abubakar na III shi ne mahaifi ga Sarkin Musulmi mai rasuwa Muhammadu Maccido da Sarki Sa'ad Abubakar na III.

Masu zaben sarki


Wadanda ke da alhakin zaben sabon Sarkin Musulmi guda 11 ne da ake kira Sarakunan Karaga. Kuma cikinsu babu wani wanda kai-tsaye dan uwa ne ga dan Fodiyo.
Sarakunan sun hada da:

1.Wazirin Sakkwato
2.Magajin Garin Sakkwato
3.Magajin Rafin Sakkwato
4.Galadiman Gari
5.Sarkin Yakin Binji
6.Sarkin Kabin Yabo
7.Ardon Dingyadi
8.Baraden Wamakko
9.Ardon Shuni
10. Sa’in Kilgore
11.Sarkin Adar na dundaye
“A duk lokacin da Sarauta ta fadi su suke zaunawa su zabi sabon Sarkin Musulmi,” in ji Magajin Gari Alhaji Hassan danbaba.

Hubbare da wadanda ake binnewa



Kamar yadda Hubbare makaranta ce da mutane ke zuwa daukar karatu zamanin Usman dan Fodiyo, haka za a iya rufe kowa a hubbaren saboda dangantakar Shehu Usman dan Fodiyo da addinin Musulunci.
Akwai kaburburan mutane da dama wadanda ba su da alaka da dan Fodiyo illa ta addini.
Wadansu da dama kan bar wasiyyar neman alfarma a binne su a Hubbaren Shehu, ba lallai sai zuriyar Mujaddadi ba.


wannan makalar Abubakar A Gwanki mai gudanarwar wannan shafin ya tsara ta, amma akasarin bayanan ta ya samosu ne daga shafin BBC HAUSA wanda shafin ya amsa tambayoyin jama'a akan masarautar sokoto wadda editansu Auwal Ahmad Janyau ya rubuta.

Tura wannan zuwa:

Kasance na farko wajen yin sharhi a kan "Daular Usmaniyya"

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Abubakar A Gwanki

Abubakar A Gwanki ne mai gudanarwa kuma mawallafin dukkannin abubuwan da wannan shafin ya kunsa.
Abubakar A Gwanki, masoyin tarihi ne sosai, kuma yana da sha'awar yin karance karance musamman na abubuwan da suka danganci tarihi.


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