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Yakin Basasar Najeriya

Wallafan June 8, 2020. 11:08pm. Na Abubakar A Gwanki. A Sashin Yakoki

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Taswirar kasar Biafra

Gabatarwa


Yakin Biafra
A shekarar 1967, bayan juyin mulki guda biyu da tashin hankalin da ya janyo 'yan kabilar Ibo kusan miliyan daya komawa yankin kudu maso gabashin kasar, soja Emeka Odumegwu Ojukwu mai shekara 33, ya jagoranci ballewar yankin Biafra.
Yakin Basasar Nigeria ya fara ranar 6 ga watan July, 1967, ya kuma kare a ranar 12 ga Janairu, 1970, wato kimanin shekaru uku kenan.

Faruwar ruwar Yakin


An samu faruwar juyin mulki a Nigeria har sau biyu gabanin barkewar yakin basasar wanda dukkan su aka yi su a bisa doron kabilanci da bangaranci.
Juyin Mulki na farko an yi shi ne a ranar 15 ga Janairu, 1966. Wadanda suka jagoranci Juyin Mulkin na 15 ga Janairu sun kasance matasan sojoji yan Kabilar Igbo (Inyamurai) karkashin jagorancin Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu da Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna. Matasan sojojin na Kabilar Igbo sun kashe manyan yan siyasar Arewa wanda suka hada Shugaban Gwamnatin Nigeria Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Shugaban Lardin Arewa Sir Ahmadu Bello, Shugaban Lardin Yamma Chief Samuel Akintola, da sauran su.
Juyin Mulki na biyu an gudanar da shine a a watan July na shekarar 1966 wanda a cikin sa manyan sojojin Arewa suka hada kan su suka gudanar a matsayin ramuwar gayya akan yadda sojoji yan Kabilar Igbo suka kashe manyan jagororin Arewa. A yayin Juyin Mulkin na watan July, sojojin Arewa sun hambarar da Gwamnatin General Aguiyi-Ironsi wanda yake ya fito ne daga Kabilar Igbo. Bayan Juyin Mulkin manyan sojojin Arewa sun dora dan uwan su dan Arewa amma kuma Kirista wato General Yakubu Gowon.

Mutanen arewacin Najeriya sunji ciwo matuka tub bayan da aka gudanar da Juyin Mulkin 15 ga watan Janairun 1966 wanda sojoji Inyamurai suka kashe manyan Jagororin Arewa, mutanen Arewa suka fara tsangwamar Inyamurai tare da kai musu farmaki a gurare da dama a manyan biranen Arewa irin su Kano da Kaduna. Don haka ne su ma Inyamurai suka fara kaiwa yan Arewa musamman Hausawa farmaki a wasu daga cikin biranen su irin su Enugu da Onitsha.


Matsalolo irin na tsangwama da hare-hare suka yi yawa akan Inyamurai a Arewa, sai Gwamnan Soja na Lardin Gabas Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ya yi kira ga Gwamnatin Nigeria da ta tabbatar ta kare dukkanin Inyamuri da yake zaune a Arewa. Daga bisani kuma ya yi kira ga dukkan wani mutum dan Kabilar Igbo da yake zaune a Arewacin Nigeria da ya dawo gida domin rayuwar sa. Wannan kira nasa kuma ya samu karbuwa yayin da Inyamurai akalla mutum miliyan 1 suka bar Arewa zuwa Yankin su na Inyamurai.
A nata bangaren, Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin General Yakubu Gowon ta fahimci cewar wannan rigingimun kabilanci da suke faruwa a kasa, suna iya raba kan kasa tare da hana tafiyar da al’amura yadda ya kamata. Don haka ne Shugaba Gowon ya gabatar da jawabin kasa akan zaman lafiya. Haka kuma ya gayyaci Gwamnonin Soja na dukkan Larduna tare da manyan hafsoshin soja zuwa Fadar kasa dake Lagos domin tattaunawa akan yadda za’a warware matsalar. Amma ina !, taron ya kare ba tare da cimma wata matsaya ba.
Ana cikin wannan hali ne, sai Shugaban Kasar Ghana J.A. Ankrah yayi wani yunkuri domin ganin an kawo karshen rashin fahimtar juna dake tsakanin Shugaban Nigeria General Yakubu Gowon da Gwamnan Lardin Gabas Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, da kuma kawo karshen rigingimun kabilanci a Nigeria. An gudanar da taron a watan Janairu 1967 a wani gari mai suna Aburi dake kasar ta Ghana wanda ya samu halartar General Yakubu Gowon, Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, da kuma wakilan Lardunan Nigeria guda hudu.
Ancimma wadannan kudurirrika guda uku a wannan muhimmin zaman

  • Taron ya amince da cewar ikon yin doka da zartarwa yaci gaba da kasancewa a karkashin ikon Majalisar Koli ta Mulkin Soja wato a turance Supreme Military Council, amma tare da tuntubar Gwamnonin Soja na Larduna.
  • Taron ya amince cewa duk wani nadi zuwa wani babban mataki a soja, yansanda, ko aikin gwamnati ya kasance bisa amincewar Majalisar Koli ta Mulkin Soja.
    Haka kuma taron ya amince cewar bisa roko da wakilan Larduna suka yi na soke dukkan wata doka da ta ragewa Gwamnatocin Larduna iko tun daga Juyin Mulki na farko.

Wani lamari wanda ya kara dagula abin shine kin aiwatar da wadannan kudirori da Gowon baiyi ba. A maimakon haka ma sai a ranar 29 ga watan Mayu, 1967, Shugaban Mulkin Sojan Nigeria General Yakubu Gowon ya ayyana dokar soja mai lamba 14 wato a turance Military Decree No. 14 wadda a karkashin ta ya ya rushe Lardunan Nigeria guda hudu tare da kirkiro Jihohi guda 12 a madadin su kamar haka;

  • Jihar Lagos
  • Jihar kudu maso Yamma
  • Jihar Bendel
  • Jihar Ribas
  • Jihar Gabas ta Tsakiya
  • Jihar Kuros ribas
  • Jihar Filato
  • Jihar Kwara
  • Jihar Arewa maso Yamma
  • Jihar Arewa maso gabas
  • Jihar Kano
  • Jihar Kaduna

Amma a bangaren sa, Gwamnan Soja na Lardin Gabas Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ya nuna bacin ran sa akan kirkiro Jihohi a Najeriya wanda ya bayyana a matsayin wani kokari na rusa Inyamurai. Don haka ne shi kuma a ranar 30 ga watan Mayu na 1967 ya bayyana ballewar Lardin Gabas daga Nigeria tare da ayyana yankin a matsayin sabuwar Jamhuriyar Biafra.

Barkewar Yakin

http://zamaniweb.com/administrator/files/20/06/168/biafra_war.png Tun bayan aiyana cin gashin kai da yankin gundumar gabashin Najeriya yayi ne asalin fara yakin, inda a ranar 6 ga watan Yulin shekarar 1967 ne dakarun sojin Najeriya suka kutsa kai cikin yankin Biafran ta bangaren arewacin yankin.
Da farko jama'a sun yi tsammanin yakin Biafran tsakanin 'yan arewa da Ibo ne har sai lokacin da dakarun Biafran suka tsallaka cikin yankin yammacin kasar, ta cikin Benin har sai da aka taka musu birki a garin Ore na jihar Ondo.

A ranar 6 ga watan July, 1967, sojojin Biafra suka afka cikin Lardin Yamma ta Tsakiya inda suka samu nasarar mamaye muhimman gurare ciki har da birnin Benin.
Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin General Yakubu Gowon ta fuskanci cewa barin sojojin Biafra su ci gaba da kasancewa a Yankin Yamma ta Tsakiya wani babban kalubale ne ga kokarin murkushe yan tawayen na Biafra. Don haka ne aka shirya rundunar sojojin Nigeria ta biyu karkashin jagorancin Colonel Murtala Muhammad domin yakar sojojin Biafra a Yankin na Yamma ta Tsakiya. A ranar 20 ga watan September, 1967, Sojojin Nigeria na Rundunar Soja ta biyu karkashin jagorancin Colonel Murtala Muhammad sun afkawa sojojin Biafra inda aka fafata yaki har na tsawon kwana biyu, wanda daga karshe sojojin Nigeria suka karbe birnin Benin. Zuwa shigowar shekarar 1968, sojojin Nigeria sun sami damar fatattakar sojin Biafra daga Yankin Yamma ta Tsakiya. Duk da haka, sojojin Nigeria sun ci gaba da mamaya har sai da suka mamaye Yankin Delta wanda ya bada damar zagaye Biafra a tsakiya, wanda a wani hannun kuma ya tabbatar da cewa Biafra bata da iyaka da teku wanda zai iya bata damar shigo da makamai ta ruwa. Haka kuma Gwamnatin Nigeria tayi amfani da wannan dama wajen toshe duk wata kafa wadda za’a iya shigar da makamai ko abinci zuwa Biafra, wanda hakan kuma ya janyo matsalar yunwa ga al’ummar Biafra.
A ranar 4 ga watan October, 1967, sojojin Nigeria sun sami nasarar kama Enugu babban birnin Jamhuriyar Biafra. Wannan nasara ta kame birnin Enugu da sojojin Nigeria suka yi ya kara musu kwarin gwiwa, a wani hannun kuma ya ragewa sojojin Biafra karsashi.
Zuwa farko-farkon shekarar 1968, Yakin Basasar Nigeria ya kasance a tsaye cak yayin da sojojin Biafra suka yi tsayuwar daka wajen hana sojojin Nigeria sake kutsawa cikin yankin su. Sai dai a watan Mayu 1968, sojojin Nigeria sun yi wani yunkuri ta hanyar afkawa tare da kama birnin Portharcourt. Haka kuma a watan September 1968, sojojin Nigeria sun kama birnin Owerri, duk da cewa sojojin Biafra sun karbe birnin daga baya.
Da wadannan nasarori, Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin General Yakubu Gowon ta ci gaba da toshe duk wata kofa wadda za’a yi shigar da makamai ko abinci zuwa cikin Biafra. Gwamnatin tayi hakan ne kuma domin ta tilastawa Biafra ajiye makaman ta domin yin sulhu. Amma maimakon ajiye makaman ta, Gwamnatin Biafra karsashin jagorancin Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ta yi amfani da farfaganda ga kasashen duniya cewa Nigeria tana so ta kashe al’ummar Biafra da yunwa. Wasu daga cikin kasashe da kungiyoyin duniya sun amsa wannan kira na Ojukwu ta hanyar aikowa da Gwamnatin Biafra tallafin makamai da abinci.

Karshen Yakin Biafra

A shekarar 1969, sojojin Biafra suka fara yanke kauna daga yin nasara a Yakin da suke da sojojin Nigeria, bayan da Shugaban Gwamnatin Biafra Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu yayi wani kira ga Majalisar Dinkin Duniya domin ta shiga tsakani a Yakin Basasar Nigeria. Sai dai Gwamnatin Nigeria tace babu wani sulhu har sai Gwamnatin Biafra ta umarci sojojin ta da su ajiye makamai, amma hakan bata yiwu ba.
Sojojin Nigeria sun ci gaba da samun nasara a Yakin na Basasar Nigeria. A watan December na shekarar 1969, sojojin Nigeria karkashin wata babbar runduna bisa jagorancin Colonel Olusegun Obasanjo sun afka cikin Yankin Biafra da niyyar mamaye yankin gaba daya. Rundunar sojojin Nigeria sun sami damar raba Biafra zuwa gida biyu, wanda a ciki ne suka kama birnin Owerri birni daya mai muhimmanci wanda ya rage a karkashin Gwamnatin Biafra.
Bayan kama birnin Owerri, sai gwiwar Shugaban Biafra Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ta yi sanyi, don haka ne ya gudu yabar Biafra zuwa kasar Ivory Coast domin samun mafaka. Daga bisani, Mataimakin Shugaban Biafra wanda Ojukwu ya bar iko a hannun sa, wato Colonel Philip Effiong ya sanar da ajiye makamai tare da mika wuya ga Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin General Yakubu Gowon a Lagos a ranar 12 ga watan Janairu, 1970.

Kasashen duniya a yakin Biafra



A yayin da ake gudanar da Yakin Basasar Nigeria, kasashen duniya da dama sun bada gudunmawar su a cikin Yakin musamman ta hanyar bada makamai. A cikin kasashen, wasu sun goyi bayan Gwamnatin Nigeria wasu kuma sun goyi bayan Gwamnatin yan tawayen Biafra kamar haka :

Magoya Bayan Najeriya sune

1. United Kingdom
2. Soviet Union
3. United States
4. Canada
5. Bulgaria
6. Ethiopia
7. Senegal
8. Somalia
9. Sierra Leone
10. Cameroon
11. Niger
12. Algeria
13. Syria
14. Saudi Arabia



Magoya Bayan Biafran sune

1. France
2. China
3. West Germany
4. Israel
5. Portugal
6. Spain
7. Holy See (Vatican)
8. South Africa
9. Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
10. Haiti
11. Gabon
12. Ivory Coast
13. Tanzania


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